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The Realist tradition includes a lot of geopolitics. Indeed, it may be viewed as a description of the geographical dimensions of power politics, as changed by technology and economics, as well as its strategic implications realpolitik manifested in physical space. Power is rooted in the physical nature of the world itself; the modern state’s power has some relation to the territory that it occupies, controls, or influences; resources and strategic potential, the sources of state power, unequally distributed worldwide.

Technology And Economics


Technology and economics, according to Fettweis, are not irrelevant to the geopolitical analysis. They are, in fact, crucial to geopolitics. The railroad and the development of airpower, as well as the transition in ship propulsion from sail to coal to oil to nuclear power, had a huge impact on the geopolitical landscape. 

Some experts said that nuclear weapons signalled the end of geopolitics; others today say that information technology and cyberspace signalled the end of geopolitics. While technology advancements can reduce the relevance of spatial determinants of policy and strategy, they do not eliminate their importance. The same is true of economic growth; capital infusions may alter, but not eliminate, the significance of a certain geographic region.

Time And Place

Strategy, according to Napoleon, is the art of manipulating time and place. His notion applies equally effectively to the level of grand strategy as it does to the tactical level of combat. The connection between geography and strategy is provided by geopolitics. Geopolitics founded on the indisputable reality that all international politics, from peace to war. It occurs in time and space, in specific geographic settings and surroundings. It then tries to figure out what connections and causal correlations exist between geographical geography and international political power in order to develop particular strategic prescriptions.

Geopolitics is not determinism based on geography, but it founded on the notion that geography determines limitations and possibilities in international politics: nations take advantage of geopolitical opportunities or victims of their geopolitical circumstances. One goal of grand strategy is to make use of one’s own geographical advantages and an adversary’s geographical weaknesses.

It’s Not A Static Field

Geopolitics is not a static field. It represents international realities and the global power constellation that emerges from the interplay of geography, technology, and economic development on the one hand, and the interaction of geography, technology, and economic development on the other. Technology and money infusions can alter, but not eliminate, the strategic relevance of a certain geographic region.


Finally, geopolitics defines the spectrum of strategic options available, acting as a roadmap to strategic efficiency. While it emphasises physical space as a crucial strategic component and source of power. It also understands that geography is merely a part of the larger picture of global events.

Many of the misunderstandings surrounding “geopolitics” stem from the term’s ambiguity: it has been used for everything from geographic determinism to the geographical component of political inquiry to simply an analytical style of thinking. However, when properly understood, geopolitics refers to a normative-strategic doctrine. Geopolitics is both descriptive and prescriptive in that it helps us comprehend the world as a whole.


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