Ventilation Through Natural Means
Natural ventilation is the simplest and most commonly used method due to the low investment requirements. Its purpose is to ensure air exchange by window leakage, manually operated window ventilators, pressure or humidity management, or automatically controlled electrical devices, such as timers – Energy-saving.
The phenomenon of natural air movement caused by a variation in density is used. The colder, denser external air enters the rooms via air inlets (ventilators) and other defects in the structure, displacing the thinner, warmer used air.
Mechanical Exhaust Ventilation
The exhaust fan creates air movement, while the diffusers deliver fresh air, similar to gravity ventilation. Mechanical exhaust works regardless of external conditions (temperature), which has several advantages over gravity ventilation: no air supply ducts are required, and the strength of air exchange may be adjusted over a large range by modifying the fan’s spinning speed. Another drawback is the requirement for electricity. The air exchange is halted due to a power outage of Energy-saving.
It utilises both gravity and mechanical exhaust ventilation. The exhaust fan is normally integrated into a specific chimney cover, which is designed to prevent the fan from obstructing airflow when it is not in use. If there is enough natural draught, the ventilation operates by gravity; if it becomes too weak, the fan kicks in.
Ventilation is independent of external weather conditions and provides significantly improved indoor air quality in both winter and summer. Mechanical ventilation allows for more efficient night cooling in the summer, which can improve the microclimate of rooms.
The energy savings from reducing the air exchange intensity on a regular basis could be in the range of 20–40 per cent.
Mechanical ventilation has a payback period of 6-8 years.
Ventilation with a ground heat exchanger is one type of mechanical ventilation. It allows the provided air to be heated in the winter and cooled in the summer. With a 50 m long exchanger, the minimum outlet temperature is approximately 2.2 ° C. And energy savings are approximately 5-7 GJ per year. With a 100 m long exchanger, the minimum outlet temperature is approximately 2.2 ° C, and energy savings are approximately 5-7 GJ per year. This method of ventilation necessitates the use of ventilation ducts and the cleaning of these ducts on a regular basis in Energy-saving.
This method of ventilation necessitates the use of ventilation ducts and the cleaning of these ducts on a regular basis.
Spending on ventilation with a ground heat exchanger has a payback time of 9–15 years, depending on the price of the energy carrier, and 6.5–9 years for air conditioning.
Supply and exhaust systems are mechanical. The air circulation in this system is likewise driven by the fans. The system, however, includes not only a network of exhaust air ducts but also supply ducts that give fresh air to the rooms. Diffusers in external walls (and other leaks) are not only unneeded but also damaging. Because they make balancing the air streams evacuated and supplied more difficult in Energy-saving.
The exhaust and supply ducts commonly meet at the air handling unit, which contains supply and exhaust fans, filters, and, in most cases. A heat exchanger (recuperator) collects heat from the removed air and uses it to heat the supply air.
Mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation provide the following advantages:
- The ability to extract air from any location;
- The recuperator can pre-heat the supplied air, or a ground heat exchanger can heat or cool it.
- The air in the structure can be filtered, for example, to remove pollen.
Heat recovery ventilation
The combination of ventilation with recuperation and a ground heat exchanger appears to be the most cost-effective alternative. Recuperation allows for the recovery of 55 to 70% of energy from exhausted used air, and when combined with a ground heat exchanger, it can increase savings by up to 80% during the heating season, as well as reduce costs associated with the need to defrost the recuperator in the winter and reduce the amount of energy required for cooling in the summer. However, such a system necessitates the use of supply ducts and an appropriate ground exchanger surface. As well as the ground surface for such an installation.